AGAE

Rhamnolipids & HAA

Surfactants

Surfactants are surface-active substances. All surfactants share a common chemical structure – a hydrophilic (water-loving) “head” and a hydrophobic (oil-loving) “tail”. Surfactants are generally classified into two groups: 1) Petroleum-derived or chemically synthesized surfactants and 2) Biologically produced biosurfactants. The primary functions of surfactants are to enhance cleaning efficiency, emulsification, wetting, dispersion, solubility, stabilization, foaming, defoaming, and lubricity of water-based compositions. These factors result in improved performance properties of water-based formulations including a range of ingredients such as other surfactants, solvents, thickeners, salts, chelating agents, foamers, defoamers and fragrances. Surfactants are sub classified by their ionic charge into four groups; anionic, nonionic, cationic and amphoteric surfactants. Anionic surfactants are the largest group and exhibit superior surfactant properties including wetting and emulsifying capacities.

Biosurfactants

Biosurfactants are any surfactant substances produced by living organisms. For example, rhamnolipids are biosurfactants that are made by a microbial fermentation. Most commonly used surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate (also sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS) are synthetically produced and can cause skin irritation and environmental damage. However, biosurfactants are much less burdensome because they are readily biodegradable.

Rhamnolipids

Rhamnolipids (RL) are members of the glycolipid biosurfactant family. Natural rhamnolipids of microbial origin are always produced as a mixture of various congeners or molecules with highly similar structures, functions and properties. An amphiphilic (water- and oil- loving) rhamnolipid molecule is composed of two moieties. One half is the water-loving sugar head having one or two rhamnose residues, and the oil-loving lipid tail possessing one or two fatty acid residues. The amphiphilic properties of rhamnolipids allow them to reduce interfacial tension between two substances that normally would not mix. When added to a mixture of two immiscible substances, such as water and oil, the rhamnolipids align themselves at the interface between the two substances. The rhamnose sugar moiety points towards the water while the fatty acid tail points towards the oil. When the substances are mixed the rhamnolipids allow an emulsion to form. The structural diversity of rhamnolipids is determined by the number of rhamnose (one/mono or two/di) and fatty acid (one or two) residues, and the fatty acid composition. The length of the constituent fatty acids and their combinations are largely variable, though mono-rhamnolipid Rha- C10-C10 and di-rhamnolipid Rha-Rha- C10-C10 are typically found to be the dominant components in a naturally produced mixture. Rhamnolipids are the most extensively studied, widely applicable and environmentally friendly biosurfactants, with an excellent human safety profile. Rhamnolipids may be manufactured in a variety of forms such as solid/granular, powder, paste-like/honey-like/syrup-like/wax-like and aqueous solutions.

Potential Application of Products - HAA

3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoate (HAA) is the precursor for biosynthesis of rhamnolipids biosurfactant. HAA alone possesses all characteristics of a typical natural biosurfactant. It can be potentially applicable to all areas covered by the best studied rhamnolipid biosurfactant.

Below is a short list of important potential application for HAA.

1. Environmental remediation (remediation of soil and water contaminated with heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), chemical pesticide residues, etc.);

2. Agriculture: (1) protection and promotion of organic growers of crops, vegetables, fruits, ornamental plants and hydroponic culture by serving as biosurfactant ingredient in formulating biofungicides, (2) adjuvant for triggering the plant innate immune defense system, (3) green surfactant for formulating fertilizer and making compost, (4) feed additives formulated with green surfactant for cow, goats, chicken, pets, etc.;

3. Enhanced oil recovery and oil-based drilling mud formulas for off-shore drilling platform;

4. Personal, household and industrial cleaning products;

5. Cosmetic formulations such as HAA-formulated lotions and creams for use on body, hair and face;

6. Starting reaction substrate for bio-recycling plastic waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET);

7. Co-surfactant or replacement for current chemical or synthetic surfactant formulated products;

8. Serving as a natural surfactant and co-solubilizing agent to potentially replace the medium chain length of fatty acids (MCF) in CBD formulations.

The above information is considered to be reference only. AGAE Technologies, LLC disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability, suitability for user's particular purpose, and assumes no liability to user's determination for use of the products. It is the sole responsibility of the user to comply with all applicable laws and regulations. No representation is expressed or implied, and nothing contained herein shall be regarded as permission, inducement or recommendation to violate any laws or to practice a patented invention prior to obtaining any required license(s). © 2022 All rights reserved by AGAE Technologies LLC.

Potential Application of Products - R95Dd & R95Md

Biosurfactant rhamnolipids (RL) are the best known and most extensively studied natural surfactants. For the last 10 years AGAE technologies has been continuously focusing on development and manufacturing of the cost-effective, high quality and high purity rhamnolipids for the global market. R95Dd and R95Md are highly purified rhamnolipid products manufactured with AGAE’s most advanced proprietary technologies. The Di-rhamnolipid dominant product R95Dd and the mono-rhamnolipid dominant product R95Md are highly pure and readily water soluble at all needed working concentrations. They are potentially applicable to the following areas at the concentrations from 0.001% to 1% (wt/v).

1.As green biosurfactant ingredients, R95Dd and R95Md may be used in formulations of high-end/high value cosmetic products such as face washes, body washes, shampoos, various personal care creams and lotions, etc.

2.As naturally occurring-surfactant ingredients, R95Dd and R95Md are safe for humans and environmentally friendly. They may be useful as co-surfactants in an existing formula to partially or completely replace synthetic or petroleum-derived surfactants. The resulting products will be greatly beneficial for human safety and health as well as for the environment.

3.Using R95Dd and/or R95Md as co-surfactants in an existing cosmetic formula may possibly resolve incompatibility problems among different existing surfactants, producing surprising and synergistic benefits for a new product.

4.Advantages of using biosurfactant rhamnolipids over synthetic surfactants are that they can work at very low concentrations and very broad ranges of pH, temperature and salinity. Using R95Dd and/or R95Md at low concentrations may outperform high concentrations of synthetic surfactants in a formula. It may result in economic efficiency, while elevating the product grade and improving the product greenness and quality.

5.Using R95Dd and/or R95Md to enhance/boost/stabilize the activities of enzymes such as restriction enzymes, PCR polymerase enzymes, etc..

6.Using R95Dd and/or R95Md may resolve product stability, solubility, transparency and foaming problems in an existing formula.

7.Likewise, as excellent natural surfactant ingredients, R95Dd and/or R95Md may display versatility in pharmaceutical formulations to replace conventional synthetic surfactants such as such as Cremophor EL, polysorbate 80, Transcutol-P, in particular formulated pharmaceutical products for topical applications.

8.Due to their high purity, R95Dd and R95Md can be used as laboratory analytical standards/references for HPLC, LC-MS, MS, GC, GC-MS, NMR, etc.

The above information is considered to be reference only. AGAE Technologies, LLC disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability, suitability for user's particular purpose, and assumes no liability to user's determination for use of the products. It is the sole responsibility of the user to comply with all applicable laws and regulations. No representation is expressed or implied, and nothing contained herein shall be regarded as permission, inducement or recommendation to violate any laws or to practice a patented invention prior to obtaining any required license(s). © 2022 All rights reserved by AGAE Technologies LLC.

Potential Application of Products - R10L/R90P/R90

Biosurfactant rhamnolipids (RL) are the best known and most highly studied natural surfactants. For the last 10 years AGAE technologies has been continuously focusing on development and manufacturing of cost-effective, high quality and high purity rhamnolipids for the global market. R10L/R90P/R90 are partially purified rhamnolipid products manufactured with AGAE’s most advanced proprietary technologies. R10L is a 85 – 90% pure, 10% rhamnolipids in aqueous solution. R90P is a paste-like form of 85 – 90% pure rhamnolipids. R90 is a solid form of 85 – 90% pure rhamnolipids.

The R10L product is easily dilutable in water to obtain all needed working concentrations. Likewise, the R90P/ R90 products are readily soluble in water. Due to their excellent characteristics in surface tension (ST), interfacial tension (IFT), tolerance to a broad range of pH, high temperature and salinity, as well as acting at very low concentration, the R10L/R90P/R90 rhamnolipid products have versatile applications. They are potentially applicable to the following areas at final rhamnolipid concentrations from 0.1% to 2.5% (wt/v).

1. As green biosurfactant products, R10L/R90P/R90 may be used in formulations of versatile personal care and household cleaning products, such as hand soap, face wash, body wash, hair wash, dish soap, degreaser, multi-surface cleaner, etc.;

2. As naturally occurring-surfactant products, R10L/R90P/R90 are safe for humans and environmentally friendly. They may be useful as independent or co-surfactants in formulations of industrial cleaning products: diesel particular filter cleaning, diesel engine and auto parts cleaning, heavy duty degreaser for commercial restaurants, cleaning products for internal and external superficial cleanup of naval vessels, spacecrafts, cruise ships, boats, laboratory instruments, hospital and clinic equipment and facilities, etc.;

3. As naturally occurring-surfactant products, R10L/R90P/R90 may be used in agricultural production (e.g. seed and seedling treatments, fruit coating for longer storage, etc.);

4. For formulations of environmentally friendly hygiene and cleaning products for use in slaughterhouses, poultry farms, dairies, meat-processing factories;

5. For formulations of cleaning products for oil tank cleaning and oil pipeline flow rate improvement;

6. For formulations of pet cleaning products;

7. For using as enzyme-activity enhancers/boosters in the hydrolysis of the waste crop stalks;

8. For formulations of feed additive products for farm animals and pet foods;

9. For formulations of oil-based drilling mud products.

10. For formulations of whale bone cleaning products.

11. For formulation of fire fighting/suppression systems and products.

The above information is considered to be reference only. AGAE Technologies, LLC disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability, suitability for user's particular purpose, and assumes no liability to user's determination for use of the products. It is the sole responsibility of the user to comply with all applicable laws and regulations. No representation is expressed or implied, and nothing contained herein shall be regarded as permission, inducement or recommendation to violate any laws or to practice a patented invention prior to obtaining any required license(s). © 2022 All rights reserved by AGAE Technologies LLC.